The Guaranteed Way to Improve Productivity and Leadership
If your organization doesn't achieve measured productivity gains within months of beginning our Values-Exchange Leadership® process, you don't pay.
We help your managers and their direct-reports examine the many different ways of improving productivity by implementing our exclusive Values-Exchange Leadership® process. There are three basic methods of improving productivity: produce more or the same with fewer resources; produce more with the same amount of resources; or produce much more relative to an increase in resources. Productivity or efficiency is the ratio of the output of goods or services to the input of resources used to produce those goods or services. Resources are the time, money, raw materials, equipment, technology, buildings, land, energy, people, and intangibles such as brand proprietary rights, information, reputation, history, culture, organizational structure, planning, ability, effort, work relationships, work processes, trust, and policies necessary to produce goods or services.1-5
Values-Exchange Leadership® is used in conjunction with a management concept applied in the performance appraisal methods of nearly 80 percent of Fortune 1000 companies in 2008 and based on a combination of leadership theories first proposed and expanded upon in 1970, 1975, 1978, 1984, 1991, and 1995.6-13 Values-Exchange Leadership® works because it is based on values and social exchange.
Values are goals and conduct which are important to people and believed to be good, bad, right, and wrong.14 Social exchange is the process of human interaction which results in rewards and costs.15
Leadership is one of the holy grails of social science. Nobody has defined leadership to the level of consensus because people have different values. Followers differ in what they believe is important, good, bad, right, and wrong. Values-Exchange Leadership® is unique in comparison to most leadership development programs in that it addresses all follower differences.
Richard Daft, author of a popular textbook on leadership, chose Herb Kelleher, founder and former CEO of Southwest Airlines, as an example of charismatic leadership in 2002.16 In response to a survey on leadership we sent to Mr. Kelleher the year before, the Vice President of People of Southwest Airlines sent us a videotape entitled "Herb Kelleher Speaks on Leadership." We'll never forget what Mr. Kelleher said he told the spouse of a CEO who had complained about "spending 90 percent of his time on people issues." Mr. Kelleher said, "I spend 99.8% of my time on people issues but it is the most important thing."17
Leadership truly is important. Executives, managers, and supervisors can elicit more productivity with Values-Exchange Leadership® : leadership that helps, inspires, and wins for you now and in the many years to come — guaranteed.
1 Daft, R. & Marcic, D. (2009). Understanding management (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
2 Hersey, P., Blanchard, K., & Johnson, D. (2008) Management of organizational behavior: Leading human resources (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
3 Robbins, S. & Coulter, Mary. (2003). Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
4 Hellriegel, D., Jackson, S., & Slocum, J. Jr. (2002). Management: A competency-based approach (9th ed.). Cincinnati: South-Western.
5 Dale, E. (1978). Management: Theory and practice (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
6 Curtin, J. (2009, Fall). Values-exchange leadership®: Using Management by Objectives performance appraisals to improve performance. Leadership Review, 4, 66-79 www.leadershipreview.org/2009fall
7 Jacobs, T. (1970). Leadership and exchange in formal organizations. Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Research Organization.
8 Dansereau, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W. (1975). A vertical dyadic linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 46-70
9 Graen, G. & Cashman, J. (1975). A role-making model of leadership in formal organizations: A developmental approach. In J. Hunt & L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership frontiers (pp. 143-180) Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
10 Hollander, E. (1978). Leadership dynamics. New York: The Free Press.
11 Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
12 Graen, G. B. & Uhl-Bien, M. (1991). The transformation of professionals into self-managing and partially self-designing contributions: Toward a theory of leader-making. Journal of Management Systems, 3(3), 33-48
13 Dansereau, F., Yammarino, F., Markham, S., Alutto, J., Newman, J., MacDonald, D., Nachman, S., Naughton, T., Kim, K., Al-Kelabi, S., Lee, S., Keller, T. (1995). Individualized leadership: A new multiple level approach. Leadership Quarterly, 6(3), 413-450
14 Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: The Free Press.
15 Thibaut, J. & Kelley, H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: John Wiley.
16 Daft, R. (2002). The leadership experience (2nd ed.) Mason, OH: South-Western.
17 Kelleher, H. (2001). Herb Kelleher speaks on leadership [Motion picture]. Southwest Airlines, 2702 Love Field Drive, Dallas, TX 75235.